Scientific Sessions

Track 1

Advanced Structural Materials

Structural materials are those used primarily for their mechanical properties. Our research involves the main classes of materials: metals, ceramics, polymers and composites, as well as sustainable construction materials. Polymers and Composites. ... Mechanical Properties of Glass.

Track 2

Biomaterials Biomedical Devices Biomedical Engineering

This area has a key role in underpinning the regenerative medicine agenda; the Advanced Materials Leadership Council (AMLC) recognizes the need to develop novel materials for healthcare. Researchers focusing on emerging challenges associated with Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, such as: generation of curative and customized biomaterials, personalized therapy and stratified medicine; biocompatibility in medical devices and bioelectronics, antimicrobial resistance, and manufacturing / scale-up of cell therapies.

Track 3

Energy Materials

Energy Materials covers current research on materials for energy (all aspects of thermal, renewable and nuclear power generation) and the transmission and storage of the energy produced. It describes how advanced materials make possible efficient energy harvesting, energy transformation and energy storage.

Track 4

Sustainable Energy

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to:

  • Biomass Conversion.
  • Photovoltaic Technology Conversion.
  • Solar Thermal Applications.
  • Wind Energy Technology.
  • Desalination.
  • Solar and Low Energy Architecture.
  • Climatology and Meteorology.
  • Geothermal Technology.

Track 5


• New preparation methods of perovskite thin film/single crystal with high reproducibility
• Perovskite/device structure optimization
• Flexible/semi-transparent perovskites
• Energetic aspects at interfaces
• Charge transport/injection properties
• Defect properties
• Photo-physics such as emission and recombination,
• Unusual phenomena such as hysteresis and ion migration
• Theoretical calculation/simulation
• Scale-up production methods for industrialization

We also welcome contributions regarding environment assessment of PSCs, exploration of lead-free perovskites, degradation issues, methods for expending life span of PSCs, etc.

Track 6

Nanocatalysis Nanochemistry

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to:

  • Carbon based nanocatalysts: Nanofullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene,
  • Nanocatalysis – development of new nanocatalysts and applications thereof.
  • Nanoscience chemistry of metal catalyst materials
  • Chemistry of Nanoenergy materials
  • NanoChips (semiconductor designing and development using new materials chemistry)
  • Nanocatalysts/nanomaterials for Nanobattery and nanofuel cells
  • Inorganic Chemistry development in nanoparticle catalysts and applications thereof like gold nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, iron and magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and other metal /alloy nanoparticles.
  • Nanocatalysts for biotechnology and Nanomedicine – Chemistry of Drug delivery systems
  • BioNanocatalysts: Chemistry and Biology of Biocatalysts
  • NanoEnzymes Chemistry
  • All other subfields of Nanocatalysts development and application

Track 7

Functional Materials Emerging Smart Materials

Functional Materials deals with the development of materials that possess native properties and functions, such as ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, magnetism and energy storage. Functional materials are found across all classes of materials, including ceramics, metals, polymers and organic molecules; they are typically used in electromagnetic applications and in materials for energy applications, such as electro- and magneto- caloric materials for energy storage or solar harvesting functions.

Smart materials are designed materials that have one or more properties that sense and react to environmental conditions or external stimuli such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, or magnetic signals. Smart materials are used in aerospace, textiles, and construction.

Track 8

Materials Chemistry and Materials Physics

From atomic devices and nanomaterials to polymers and expanded solids, science is making a universe of new materials as sensors, molecular transporters, filters, artificial scaffolds and electron conducting or light emitting, with the potential for wide scientifically and societal effect. Materials chemistry includes the design and blend of materials with intriguing or conceivably helpful physical qualities, for example, optical, magnetic, structural or catalytic properties.

Nano indentation has turned into a typical device for the estimation of mechanical properties at smaller scale yet may have significantly more prominent significance as a method for test investigations of materials physics.

Track 9

Materials Science and Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) combines engineering, physics and chemistry principles to solve real-world problems associated with nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing and other major engineering disciplines.

MSE is the field that leads in the discovery and development of the stuff that makes everything work.

Track 10

Polymer Science and Technology

The fundamentals of polymerization, polymer characteristics, rheology and morphology, as well as the composition, technology, testing and evaluation of various plastics, rubbers, fibres, adhesives, coatings and composites are involved in Polymer Science.

Track 11

Surface Science and Engineering

Surface Science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces. It also includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics.

Surface Engineering utilizes vast variety of strategies, yet it is the Ion based and Plasma Surface Engineering methods which are attracting the major International interests. Those strategies offer the most encouraging techniques for enhancing surface quality to better control the structure and increment the reproducibility of coatings by exact process control. This is vital, for instance, in providing properties to withstand complex stacking conditions in the corrosive environments.

Track 12

Coating, Composite and Ceramic Materials

With the innovative advancements in materials mining, engineering and processing, the present coating materials market may contain a huge number of various selections of materials. A noteworthy thought for most coating processes is that the coating is to be connected at a controlled thickness, and various distinctive procedures are being used to accomplish this control, extending from a basic brush for painting a wall, to some exceptionally costly electronics applying coatings in the electronics business.

Most composites are made by taking one material (the lattice) and having it surrounds filaments or sections of a stronger material (the support). Engineers have numerous options amid the manufacturing procedure to figure out what the properties of the subsequent composite will be. Present day aeronautics has been the essential driver for composite materials, as it has greater demand for materials that are both light and strong.

With the advancement of innovation, ceramics materials are presently being produced in a research center under the watchful eye of a researcher. Ceramic materials are utilized as a part of electronics based on their composition, they might be semiconducting, superconducting, ferroelectric, or an insulator.

Track 13

Electronics and Photonics

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to.

  • Energy Conversion Technologies
  • Biosensing, Biophotonics and Bioelectronics
  • Quantum Devices and Information Processing
  • Photonics in Computing, Communications and Information Processing
  • RF and THz Photonics
  • Non-Traditional Imaging and Displays.

Track 14

Nanomaterials and 2D Materials

Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are composed of thin layers that may have a thickness of at least one atomic layer. Contrary to bulk materials, these nanomaterials have a high aspect ratio (surface-area-to-volume ratio) and therefore have many atoms on their surface.

In two-dimensional nanomaterials (2D), two dimensions are outside the nanoscale and one dimension is only a single or few atomic layers thick. This class exhibits plate-like shapes and includes graphene and other monolayer materials such as MXenes, black phosphorous phosphorene), and diatomic hexagonal boron nitride.

Track 15

Nanotechnology in Materials Science

Nanotechnology is the study and application of things that are extremely small and can be used across all the fields of science, such as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, micro fabrication, etc. In recent years, materials science is becoming more widely known as a specific field of science and engineering. Nanotechnology gathers Nano robots, materials science, Nano sensors, Micro technology, Forensic engineering, chemical engineering, biology, biological engineering, and electrical engineering. Nanotechnology also includes the discovery, characterization, properties, and end-use of nanoscale materials. The future is with nanoparticles this is only possible only through Nanotechnology, which can be smarter and efficient.

Track 16

Materials synthesis and Characterization

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to:
• Synthesis of magneto-responsive materials
• Characterization and modelling of the complex physical behaviors
• Understanding of the complex behavior using novel methods
• Design of innovative devices using magneto-responsive materials
• Proposals and analysis of the new engineering applications
• Trial and implementation of such materials

Track 17

Electrochemical Applications

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to:

  • Batteries and Energy Storage. ...
  • Corrosion Science and Technology. ...
  • Electrochemical/Electroless Deposition. ...
  • Electrochemical Engineering. ...
  • Fuel Cells, Electrolyzers, and Energy Conversion. ...
  • Organic and Bio electrochemistry. ...
  • Physical and Analytical Electrochemistry, Electrocatalysis, and Photo electrochemistry.
  • Sensors (Electrochemical)
  • Solid State - Carbon Nanostructures and Devices
  • Dielectric Science and Materials
  • Electronic Materials and Processing
  • Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems
  • Luminescence and Display Materials, Devices, and Processing
  • Sensors (Solid State)

Track 18

Optoelectronics, Photonics and Magnetic materials

Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but not limited to:

  • Biophotonics
  • Fiber and Integrated Photonics and Lasers
  • Nanophotonics
  • Nonlinear Optics and MEMS
  • Optoelectronics
  • Quantum Optics and Information
  • Ultrafast Optics

Track 19

Graphene in daily life

Graphene is a disruptive innovation; one that could open up new markets and even supplants existing technologies or materials. It is when graphene is utilized both to improve a current material and in a transformational limit that its actual potential can be figured it out. The immense number of products processes and industries for which graphene could make a noteworthy effect all stems from its astounding properties. No other material has the broadness of superlatives that graphene brags, making it perfect for endless applications. Transport, medication, gadgets, energy, defence, desalination; the scope of businesses where graphene inquire about is having an effect is significant and this is just the beginning. These are just the initial steps. The capability of graphene is restricted distinctly by our creative mind

  • Biomedical
  • Electronics
  • Energy
  • Graphene membranes
  • Sensors

Track 20

Solar cells

  • Next Generation Solar Cells
  • Optics and Photonics for PV Applications
  • Building-Integrated PVCrystalline Silicon Solar Cells
  • Perovskite Solar Cells
  • Thin Film Solar Cells
  • Solar Cell Test and Characterization Technologies
  • Agricultural and Rural PV Applications
  • Solar Energy Resource and PV Solar Input Assessment
  • Socioeconomic Impacts of Solar PV

Track 21

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are allotropes of carbon which have fascinating electrical, mechanical and other physical properties. Graphene is a two-dimensional material, on a very basic level of a single layer graphite, with carbon particles arranged in a hexagonal, honeycomb framework. Carbon nanotubes are barrel shaped and empty structures, essentially, a sheet of graphene folded into a chamber. The time when they are rolled (their "chirality"), and their separation over, impact their properties. CNTs can be single-walled (SWCNTs or SWNTs) or it can be multi-walled (MWCNTs or MWNTs)

  • Chemical modification
  • Multi-walled CNTs
  • Single-walled CNTs
  • Extreme carbon nanotubes
  • single-walled CNTs

Track 22

Graphene and Biomaterials in the field of Healthcare

Graphene's comparability with various biomedical applications, like drug delivery, cancer therapies and biosensing, is broadly and vigorously asked about. The material's extraordinary properties, like an enormous surface region, incredible biocompatibility and chemical stability, think of it that it deserving of intensive examination and high expectations. Artificial inserts are therapeutic staple and graphene could accept a noteworthy activity later on of these contraptions. Graphene's biocompatibility, joined with its mechanical quality, is significant for various composite bio-materials and its electrical conductivity can be used for organs that require such attributes, like nerve tissues and spinal parts. Bio-sensing is a creating field, with various restorative applications that ring a bell. Various streets are researched hence, with graphene exhibiting remarkable execution in distinguishing sustenance harms, characteristic tainting, specific germs and microorganisms.

  • Bionanotech Applications of graphene
  • Graphene as Excellent Material for Brain Interfaces
  • Graphene Expected to Revolutionize Neurosurgery
  • Drug delivery

Track 23

Graphite, Graphene their Polymer Nano Compounds

Graphite, Graphene, and Their Polymer Nanocomposites present an array of rising assessment floats in graphene-based polymer nanocomposites (GPNC). Worldwide researchers from a couple of controls share their expertise about graphene, its properties and the conduct of graphene-based composites. Maybe the principle conveyed monograph of its kind. This hypothesis gives an extensive portrayal of graphite, graphene, and their PNCs, including the essential material science and chemistry and related applications. Beginning with a preface to normal and produced graphite, the precursors to graphene, the substance depicts their properties, depiction strategies, and unquestionable business applications.

  • Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites (GPNC)
  • Methods of GPNC
  • Polymer characterization

Track 24

Chemistry and Biology studies of Graphene

Recent experiment and Present day advances in the field of nanotechnologies have maintained the difference in interdisciplinary research and various scientists have some ability in collecting new sorts of nanomaterials that hold ensure for various applications, for instance, medicinal determination and treatment, ecological observing, vitality creation and capacity, sub-nuclear enlisting and generously more. Graphene, an increasingly significant nano-sized material detailed in 2004, has created to wind up an invigorating two-dimensional material with unquestionable attributes that has pulled incredible enthusiasm for the fields of physical science, Chemical science and the field of biology. Recent experiment and Present day advances in the field of nanotechnologies have maintained the difference in interdisciplinary research.

  • Biological interactions of graphene
  • Chemical and biological applications of graphene
  • Graphene-enhanced cell differentiation and growth

Track 25

Nano carbon Materials in Energy

Nanocarbons contemplates the control of size as well as the control of structure and surface at the nanometer scale. It considers nanosized carbons (carbon nanotubes and nanofibers; graphene-based materials; nanodiamonds) and nanostructured permeable carbons (carbon gels and carbons got by templating). Nanocarbons offer numerous preferences over the customary carbon materials. This outcomes from increasingly satisfactory textural properties, yet additionally from new impacts got from ebb and flow,  confinement, heteroatom doping, and improved electron move. Carbon-supported metal impetuses are for the most part applied in the fine synthetic and pharmaceutical enterprises. Enacted carbons and carbon blacks are the materials right now utilized in these applications.

  • Batteries
  • CNTs
  • Energy conversion
  • Energy storage
  • Nanocarbons
  • Supercapacitors

Track 26

Growth and Production of Graphene and 2D Materials

Graphene is at the focal point of a consistently developing examination exertion because of its remarkable properties, intriguing for both principal science and applications. A key necessity for applications is the improvement of modern scale, dependable, cheap creation forms. Graphene is only the first of another class of two dimensional materials, got from layered bulk crystals. The greater part of the methodologies utilized for graphene can be reached out to these crystals, quickening their excursion towards applications. As the quantity of business uses of graphene and other 2D materials continues extending, creating and conveying two-dimensional materials of high gauge is quick turning into a critical challenge. Starting late, there have been various frameworks made to incorporate graphene, going past the 'Scotch tape' method upheld by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov.

  • Micromechanical cleavage
  • Chemical vapour deposition(CVD)
  • Molecular Beam epitaxy
  • Photoexfoliation

Track 27

Semiconductor Materials and Nanostructures

The electronic and optical properties of the most well-known III–V and II–VI parallel semiconductor mixes and their compounds are needed to be discussed. This thought of the pseudomorphic heterostructures containing concentrated on the layers of these materials is shown and the key impacts of spatial control are considered, concentrating on two-dimensional structures (quantum wells) and zero-dimensional structures (quantum spots). In the two cases the electron spectra and optical advances are characterized in the structure of a multiband envelope work guess. Excitonic fine structure is spoken to both in quantum wells and quantum spots as far as the balance decrease prompted by the bearer keeping potential. The connections exhibited in the section permit one to foresee the vitality and quality of optical advances, contingent upon sizes and states of semiconductor nanostructures; they can be utilized to legitimize the decision of specific nanostructures for the reasons for plasmonics.

  • Applications of semiconductor nanostructures
  • quantum wells
  • quantum dots
  • envelope function approximation
  • excitonic fine structure

Track 28

Graphene and Ultrathin 2D Materials

Alongside a colossal enthusiasm for nanomaterials, 2D nanomaterials hold extraordinary guarantee for a wide scope of utilizations in the fields of science, consolidated issue, material science, and designing. These 2D nanomaterials should keep on moving numerous curiosity‐driven disclosures and applications in the fields of supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, catalysis, and electromagnetic impedance (EMI) protecting. As of late, 2D nanomaterials are risen as the most encouraging materials for applications in EMI protecting. Up until now, few 2D nanomaterials including graphene, change metal carbides, and molybdenum disulfide are tried for application in EMI protecting. In this, ongoing advancement in 2D nanomaterials for high‐performance EMI protecting is checked on. The advancement secured shows extraordinary guarantee for the innovative improvement of cutting edge EMI protecting materials for present day versatile and other progressed electronic gadget.

  • 2D nanomaterials
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding

Track 29

Application of Carbon Nanotubes

As nanotechnology keeps on developing as the scientific beacon of future, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are no exemption. Carbon nanotubes are multiple times more grounded than steel however at one-6th the weight. They additionally lead warmth and power superior to copper. Bridled appropriately, the utilizations of CNTs are changing material science and innovation. Presently half of lithium batteries joined carbon nanofibers, which are wires spun from CNTs. Carbon nanotubes are in any event, being utilized to improve outdoor supplies like tennis rackets, baseball bats, and bike outlines. Carbon nanotubes are in any event, rising in the medical field. Scientists have made a biosensor that can analyze yeast infections faster than the present strategy. Another potential medicinal utilization of CNTs is in assisting with focusing on tumors.

  • Carbon Nanotubes and Energy
  • Carbon Nanotubes In Healthcare
  • Carbon Nanotubes and the Environment
  • Carbon Nanotubes Effecting Materials
  • Carbon Nanotubes and Electronics

Track 30

Application of Graphene Technology

Graphene will discover applications in electronics as well as in bioengineering, composite materials,  energy technology and nanotechnology. As indicated by present estimations, it won't be until 2030 when we will start to see graphene broadly utilized in organic applications as it is basic for us to comprehend its biocompatibility. It is accepted that graphene will be utilized on a business scale in the field of optoelectronics particularly LCDs, touch screens and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Graphene is totally transparent material and can transmit up to 97.7% of occurrence light. It likewise has high conductivity, thus would be appropriate for cell phones, tablet, desktop computers and TVs.

Graphene permits water to go through, anyway it is practically impenetrable to fluids and gases. Graphene can be utilized as a ultrafiltration medium to carry on as a hindrance between two substances. Graphene is valuable since it is only one single particle thick and can be created as a boundary that estimates weight and strain electronically between two substances

  • Biological Engineering
  • Optical Electronics
  • Ultrafiltration
  • Composite Materials
  • Photovoltaic Cells

Track 31

Graphene the Ultra-Capacitor

Researchers have been attempting to create energy storage solutions, for example, batteries and capacitors that can stay aware of the current rate of electronic segment development for various years. Tragically, the circumstance we are in now is that while we can store a lot of energy in particular sorts of batteries, those batteries are very large, very heavy, and charge and discharge their vitality moderately gradually. Capacitors, then again, can be charged and discharge energy rapidly, yet can hold considerably less energy than a battery. Graphene application improvements however have lead to new conceivable outcomes for energy storage, with high charge and release rates, which can be made economically.

  • Lithium–sulfur batteries and lithium–air batteries
  • 3D-printed graphene batteries
  • Electrodes for sodium-ion batteries
  • Redox flow battery

Track 32

Emerging Trends in Graphene Experiment

Carbon is one of the most plentiful components found in our temperament, and its blends have a wide nearness on the Earth. In that capacity, it remains as one of the most generally perceived resource materials to shape distinctive nanostructured composites. The carbon-based mixes structure the premise of all known life in nature. Present day times observer the improvement of techniques to use the allotropes of carbon for groupings of prerequisites. Inferable from the versatile holding limit of carbon, it has intriguing properties of reacting with various segments, right now the carbon-based blends to find a broad assortment of employments in standard human life. The stream investigates examples of graphene advancement incorporate sketching out and assembling such mediums prepared for controlling electromagnetic waves. The conceivable outcomes of graphene-overhauled advancement expedite noteworthy effects the current nanotech-based R&D world.

  • Device uses graphene plasmons to convert mid-infrared light to electrical signals
  • Graphene future electronics superfast
  • New Way to 3D Print Graphene Objects

Track 33

Electrochemistry of diamond and Nano carbon materials

Nanometre dimensional C60 and related aluminum refining are offering approach to progressively different applications requiring high-surface-zone carbon i.e., capacitor, power modules, metal/air batteries, and high-vitality anodes. What's more, the minimal effort of carbon comparative with other electronic conductors is a significant favorable position for it’s across the board use in anodes, especially in electrochemical frameworks that must rival existing advances. Anodes are especially appealing for electrochemistry Because of its uncommon synthetic steadiness; jewel is a point of view terminal material to be utilized in electrochemistry and electrochemical building.

  • Electrochemical surface of Diamond
  • Carbon Materials and Electrochemical Energy
  • Nano Carbon materials for the electrochemical storage

Track 34

Artificial Graphite and Natural Graphene

There are various sorts of 'graphene' ascending out of research focuses towards business uses, made by methods for a collection of procedures and yielding different properties and obvious worth. A key issue for those, needing to make graphene from mined graphite, is understanding the complexities between characteristic graphite-course graphene and falsely made material. In other hand Producing of graphene in mass is modern abuse of this unprecedented two-dimensional material. In light of that, Graphene Flagship researchers have developed a novel minor departure from the concoction fume affidavit process which yields amazing material in a versatile manner. This improvement ought to in a general sense limit the execution gap among manufactured and regular graphene.

  • Different types of graphene
  • CVD graphene

Track 35

CVD Graphene-Creating Graphene via Chemical Vapour Deposition

There are various sorts of 'graphene' ascending out of research focuses towards business uses, made by methods for a collection of procedures and yielding different properties and obvious worth. A key issue for those, needing to make graphene from mined graphite, is understanding the complexities between characteristic graphite-course graphene and falsely made material. In other hand Producing of graphene in mass is modern abuse of this unprecedented two-dimensional material. In light of that, Graphene Flagship researchers have developed a novel minor departure from the concoction fume affidavit process which yields amazing material in a versatile manner. This improvement ought to in a general sense limit the execution gap among manufactured and regular graphene.

  • CVD process
  • Fundamental process in the creation of CVD graphene
  • Problems associated with the creation of CVD Graphene
  • Current and potential solutions

Track 36

Challenges and Opportunities in Graphene commercialization

With the expanding of the range of graphene-based materials and procedures, as of late started endeavors to institutionalize the meaning of various sorts of graphene will positively assist speed with increasing the commercialization of graphene. The creators presume that in spite of the fact that commercialization of a novel material can on normal take as long as 20 years, graphene is on a decent track to beat that cutoff time. The business is very much aware of the difficulties and openings lying ahead in the years to come and is prepared to manage them.

Track 37

Graphene and its Oxide

The present graphene is conventionally made using mechanical or warm shedding, concoction fume statement (CVD), and epitaxial advancement. A champion among the best techniques for integrated graphene on a broad scale could be by the compound decrease of graphene oxide. Graphite is a 3-dimensional carbon-based material made up of countless layers of graphene. By the oxidation of graphite using solid oxidizing operator, oxygenated functionalities are displayed in the graphite structure which develops the layer parcel just as makes the material hydrophilic (suggesting that they can be scattered in water). This property empowers the graphite oxide to be shed in water utilizing sonication, finally making single or few-layer graphene, known as graphene oxide (GO). Functionalization of graphene oxide can change graphene oxide's properties. The consequent misleadingly changed graphenes could then end up being generously progressively adaptable for a lot of usages.

  • Graphene oxide powder
  • Applications of graphene oxide
  • Graphene oxide paste, non-exfoliated
  • Graphene oxide sheets

Track 38

Graphene 3D printing

3D printing (or included substance manufacturing) insinuates a methodology where a 3D printer is used for stacking layers of material under PC control, following a 3D show (or other electronic data source), realizing a printed three-dimensional inquiry. Various applications for 3D printing join layout discernment and prototyping, metal tossing, building, preparing, social protection, energy and that is just a hint of something larger. As 3D printing development continues progressing and make, authorities gather possible biotechnological uses like bio-printing and PC helped tissue planning and furthermore retail amassing of specially completed outcomes which may change the substance of exchange.

Track 39

Graphene Nano in Energy and Storage

Graphene, 2D atomic layer of sp2 carbon, has pulled in a ton of eagerness for use in solar cells, LEDs, electronic skin, touchscreens, essentialness storing devices, and microelectronics. This is a result of incredible properties of graphene, for instance, a high theoretical surface locale, electrical conductivity, and mechanical quality. The fundamental structure of graphene is similarly manipulatable, considering the plan of a considerably more unprecedented material, porous graphene. Porous graphene structures can be arranged as microporous,